Types of dyslexia

Featured in

    Dyslexia can be divided into numerous types and subtypes which have different symptoms. Read on to learn more.

    Dyslexia is a lifelong issue that can’t be completely cured. However, dyslexic people take numerous actions to improve their reading ability, word recognition, and phonological processing.

    The actions one should take depend on the type of dyslexia. Here, you’ll learn more about the different types of dyslexia.

    What is dyslexia – an overview

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities that causes problems with reading, spelling, and writing. This disability is usually identified in childhood and often lasts into adulthood.

    People with this learning disorder have difficulty reading and/or writing, confuse the order of letters in words, have poor spelling skills, can’t copy words from different sources, etc. In some cases, dyslexia is related to ADHD.

    It’s important to clarify that this disability isn’t related to intelligence. Dyslexia affects people of all intellectual abilities. While individuals can improve their reading level and phonological awareness, they can’t outgrow dyslexia.

    Dyslexia tends to run in families and represents a difference in how the brain processes language. Due to this difference, people with dyslexia often see words in an inverted form, without spaces, or with moving letters.

    There are numerous types of dyslexia, and they have different symptoms. In other words, there are no uniform symptoms every person with dyslexia will experience. Regardless of the type, keep in mind that dyslexia happens on a continuum, and the symptoms can vary from mild to severe.

    The types of dyslexia

    Let’s review the different types and subtypes of dyslexia and explain their symptoms:

    Surface dyslexia

    Surface dyslexia is related to individuals who can sound out a new word but can’t recognize familiar ones by sight. In this case, the problem is related to visual processing; individuals can’t recognize how a word looks and, consequently, can’t process it.

    These are the common symptoms:

    • Problems with word recognition
    • Reading slowly
    • Difficulty spelling and reading
    • Getting letters confused
    • Difficulty reading unfamiliar words by sight

    Phonological dyslexia

    Phonological dyslexia is related to a difficulty with breaking up words into syllables and phonemes. Individuals with phonological dyslexia often have no issues pronouncing words. However, they can’t split words into smaller units.

    As a result, these individuals have issues decoding words and matching phonemes to graphemes (letters).

    The most common symptoms are:

    • Inability to remember individual sounds
    • Difficulty making the letter-sound connection
    • Poor word analysis skills
    • Problems with rhyming
    • Spelling skills remain below the reading level

    Visual dyslexia

    Visual dyslexia is similar to surface dyslexia and dyseidetic dyslexia. This type of dyslexia affects visual processing, meaning individuals see what’s on the page but can’t process it correctly. Visual dyslexia affects spelling because the brain can’t remember the correct letter and word sequence.

    Keep in mind that visual dyslexia can result from visual problems like nearsightedness and farsightedness.

    Frequent symptoms of visual dyslexia are:

    • Texts seem blurry.
    • Difficulty keeping track of lines.
    • Difficulty focusing on the text.
    • Text appears double.
    • Eyestrain and headaches when reading.

    Dyscalculia

    Dyscalculia is a difficulty in understanding numbers, often leading to problems with mathematics. Technically, dyscalculia is a different condition than dyslexia. However, many people call it “math dyslexia,” which is why it made the list.

    Common symptoms include:

    • Difficulty learning to count.
    • Difficulty remembering math facts.
    • Problems with understanding concepts like “less than” or “greater than.”
    • Inability to apply math skills to daily life.

    Developmental dyslexia

    The term developmental dyslexia is often used interchangeably with dyslexia. Definitions for these two terms are essentially the same: a disability that affects reading, spelling, and writing.

    Many people use “developmental” to distinguish between genetic and acquired dyslexia (due to head trauma, brain injury, or stroke).

    Common signs and symptoms of dyslexia are:

    • Slow reading
    • Poor spelling and/or writing
    • Symptoms related to a specific type of dyslexia

    Dysgraphia

    Dysgraphia represents difficulties with transcription, i.e., skills related to handwriting, spelling, and typing. Unlike dyslexia, dysgraphia isn’t a reading disorder.

    Common symptoms are:

    • Slow writing
    • Difficulty expressing thoughts and ideas through writing
    • Difficulty forming letters
    • Poor phonemic awareness

    Auditory dyslexia

    Auditory dyslexia, also known as dysphonetic dyslexia, represents the inability to process the basic sounds of a language, i.e., the lack of phonemic awareness. This type of dyslexia is also called Auditory Processing Disorder (APD).

    The most common symptoms are:

    • Inability to understand people in loud spaces
    • Fusing multiple sounds into one
    • Hearing sounds in reversed order

    Double Deficit Dyslexia

    Double deficit isn’t really a type of dyslexia, but it’s an important concept that needs to be clarified. The term is used for individuals who have phonological impairments and problems with rapid automatic naming (RAN).

    This naming deficit refers to how fast an individual can retrieve the names of numbers, letters, colors, etc., from long-term memory.

    Trauma dyslexia

    This type of dyslexia isn’t developmental but is caused by a brain injury, head trauma, or a disease. People who experience poor reading comprehension and difficulty writing after an injury should see a doctor as soon as possible.

    Dyseidetic dyslexia

    Dyseidetic dyslexia is related to deficits in visual memory and discrimination, characterized by difficulty recognizing and spelling whole words.

    Common symptoms are:

    • Poor grasp of phonics.
    • Common spelling mistakes.
    • Difficulty sounding out words.

    Primary dyslexia

    Primary dyslexia is a subtype of developmental dyslexia that is genetically inherited.

    Overcome dyslexia with Speechify

    Regardless of the type of dyslexia, text to speech programs like Speechify can prove invaluable. Speechify uses the latest technology to convert almost any written text to speech. It allows users to choose the reading speed, voice, and accent and customize their experience.

    Another benefit of Speechify is accessibility. It can be used as a browser extension, an independent desktop app, or a smartphone app. The platform ensures reading doesn’t represent an obstacle to learning. Don’t hesitate to try Speechify and enjoy its many benefits.

    Cliff Weitzman

    Cliff Weitzman

    Cliff Weitzman is a dyslexia advocate and the CEO and founder of Speechify, the #1 text-to-speech app in the world, totaling over 100,000 5-star reviews and ranking first place in the App Store for the News & Magazines category. In 2017, Weitzman was named to the Forbes 30 under 30 list for his work making the internet more accessible to people with learning disabilities. Cliff Weitzman has been featured in EdSurge, Inc., PC Mag, Entrepreneur, Mashable, among other leading outlets.

    Dyslexia & Accessibility Advocate, CEO/Founder of Speechify Dyslexia & Accessibility Advocate, CEO/Founder of Speechify

    Recent Blogs

    • Voice API
      Voice API: Everything You Need to Know
      Arrow
    • The best AI tools other than ChatGPT
      The best AI tools other than ChatGPT
      Arrow
    • Top voice over marketplaces reviewed
      Top voice over marketplaces reviewed
      Arrow
    • Speechify Studio vs. Descript
      Speechify Studio vs. Descript
      Arrow
    • Google Cloud Text to Speech API
      Everything to Know About Google Cloud Text to Speech API
      Arrow
    • Source of Joe Biden deepfake revealed after election interference
      Source of Joe Biden deepfake revealed after election interference
      Arrow
    • How to listen to scientific papers
      How to listen to scientific papers
      Arrow
    • How to add music to CapCut
      How to add music to CapCut
      Arrow
    • What is CapCut?
      What is CapCut?
      Arrow
    • VEED vs. InVideo
      VEED vs. InVideo
      Arrow
    • Speechify Studio vs. Kapwing
      Speechify Studio vs. Kapwing
      Arrow
    • Voices.com vs. Voice123
      Voices.com vs. Voice123
      Arrow
    • Voices.com vs. Fiverr Voice Over
      Voices.com vs. Fiverr Voice Over
      Arrow
    • Fiverr voice overs vs. Speechify Voice Over Studio
      Fiverr voice overs vs. Speechify Voice Over Studio
      Arrow
    • Voices.com vs. Speechify Voice Over Studio
      Voices.com vs. Speechify Voice Over Studio
      Arrow
    • Voice123 vs. Speechify Voice Over Studio
      Voice123 vs. Speechify Voice Over Studio
      Arrow
    • Voice123 vs. Fiverr voice overs
      Voice123 vs. Fiverr voice overs
      Arrow
    • HeyGen vs. Synthesia
      HeyGen vs. Synthesia
      Arrow
    • Hour One vs. Synthesia
      Hour One vs. Synthesia
      Arrow
    • HeyGen vs. Hour One
      HeyGen vs. Hour One
      Arrow
    • Speechify makes Google’s Favorite Chrome Extensions of 2023 list
      Speechify makes Google’s Favorite Chrome Extensions of 2023 list
      Arrow
    • How to Add a Voice Over to Vimeo Video: A Comprehensive Guide
      How to Add a Voice Over to Vimeo Video: A Comprehensive Guide
      Arrow
    • How to Add a Voice Over to Canva Video: A Comprehensive Guide
      How to Add a Voice Over to Canva Video: A Comprehensive Guide
      Arrow
    • What is Speech AI: Explained
      What is Speech AI: Explained
      Arrow
    • How to Add a Voice Over to Canva Video
      How to Add a Voice Over to Canva Video
      Arrow
    • The Ultimate Guide to Speech AI
      The Ultimate Guide to Speech AI
      Arrow
    • Fan Fiction Audiobooks: The Fusion of Storytelling and Fandom
      Fan Fiction Audiobooks: The Fusion of Storytelling and Fandom
      Arrow
    • Everything to Know About AI Spotify Ads: The Power of Artificial Intelligence in Audio Advertising
      Everything to Know About AI Spotify Ads: The Power of Artificial Intelligence in Audio Advertising
      Arrow
    • Respeecher and Calm app bring Jimmy Stewart’s voice back through AI technology
      Respeecher and Calm app bring Jimmy Stewart’s voice back through AI technology
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      The Best Celebrity Voice Generators in 2024
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      YouTube Text to Speech: Elevating Your Video Content with Speechify
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      The 7 best alternatives to Synthesia.io
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Everything you need to know about text to speech on TikTok
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      The 10 best text-to-speech apps for Android
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      How to convert a PDF to speech
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      The top girl voice changers
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      How to use Siri text to speech
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Obama text to speech
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Robot Voice Generators: The Futuristic Frontier of Audio Creation
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      PDF Read Aloud: Free & Paid Options
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Alternatives to FakeYou text to speech
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      All About Deepfake Voices
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      TikTok voice generator
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Text to speech GoAnimate
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      The best celebrity text to speech voice generators
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      PDF Audio Reader
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      How to get text to speech Indian voices
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Elevating Your Anime Experience with Anime Voice Generators
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Best text to speech online
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Top 50 movies based on books you should read
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Download audio
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      How to use text-to-speech for Quandale Dingle meme sounds
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Top 5 apps that read out text
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      The top female text to speech voices
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Female voice changer
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Sonic text to speech voice generator online
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Best AI voice generators – The Ultimate List
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Voice changer
      Arrow
    • Home School Curriculum for Kids with Learning Disabilities: A Comprehensive Guide
      Text to speech in Powerpoint
      Arrow
    footer-waves